Can I Buy Ejido Land?
Can I Buy Ejido Land?
by David W. Connell
A very large part of Mexican real estate is classified as ejido land.
Ejido land is not private property and cannot be bought and sold as if
it were. However, since the constitutional reforms of 1992 ejido land
now can be converted into private property and sold to third parties,
including foreigners. The present article will briefly describe what an
ejido is and how ejido land is classified as well as talk about the ways
in which ejido land can be converted into private property.
WHAT IS AN EJIDO? In general terms, an ejido is a collective group of
people that live and work on a determined piece of property as a
community. While the concept of the ejido in Mexico is prehispanic, most
of the fundamental ideas and concepts that created what an ejido is
today stem from the theories of democratic communism. Understanding this
is very important when dealing with ejidos. Most people reading this
article have grown up in a society based on democratic capitalism in
which the individual and not the community determines what he or she is
going to do. In a communistic society the community determines what it
is going to do, including agreeing upon how the land they hold is to be
Taking into consideration the above, it is not hard to imagine the
confusions that could exist when discussing ownership of ejido land.
Most foreigners associate the word “ownership” with words such as “fee
simple”, “private property” “Adam Smith”, while the ejidatarios idea
would be more on the lines of “community rights”, “right to use and
enjoy”, “governmental concession”.
Until ejido land is converted to private property, foreigners cannot
acquire “ownership” of ejido land in accordance with their understanding
of the word “ownership”.
1.- Ejido land cannot be sold to non-ejido members until it is converted
into private property. There are exceptions where non-ejido members can
acquire “posessionary” rights to ejido land, however the rules governing
posessionary rights are not very secure, especially for foreigners.
2.- Foreigners cannot legally become ejidatarios.
3.- What an ejidatario understands as ownership is often times different
than your understanding of ownership.
CAN EJIDO LAND BE CONVERTED INTO PRIVATE PROPERTY? There are two
principal ways in which ejido land can be converted into private
property and they are as follows:
1.- By filing a suit based on prescriptive rights (adverse possession).
This suit will only be productive when the person wanting to acquire
title to ejido land can prove that he or she has possessed the land in
good faith for 5 years or in bad faith for 10 years. Many professionals
argue that this rule does not apply to foreigners. This article does not
focus on converting ejido land into private property in this manner,
however it should not be dismissed as a viable option.
The legal institutions of “prescriptive rights” or “adverse possession”
are the methods of acquiring complete ownership rights to property,
against the owner and other third parties, through possession of the
property for an uninterrupted period of time. This time will be
interrupted if the possession of the property is left or if the legal
owner or a third party makes legal claims to the land. This method
cannot be used if a contract exists between the owner and the person in
possession of the property. Under the new Agrarian Law “prescriptive
rights” can be used to acquire ownership to property. The “good faith”,
5 year possession rule, in general terms, means that you have to possess
the property for 5 years, be recognized locally as the owner, pay your
property taxes and not know who the true owner is. The “bad faith” 10
year possession rule, in general terms, means that you have to possess
the property for 10 years and you may or may not know who the owner is.
2.- By having the ejido agree to “certify” the rights of each person who
owns or possesses land in the ejido and then convert the certificates to
private property titles. In order to accomplish this the ejido must
agree to enter and complete the following two procedures:
A.- PROCEDE.- PROCEDE or “Program of Certification of Ejido Rights” is a
government procedure by means of which the government, upon the approval
of the ejido, certifies the agrarian rights to land within the ejido.
This is not an obligatory procedure and will only begin when the
majority of the ejido agrees to enter into the procedure and the ejido
does not have any legal conflicts that prohibit it from entering into
Some of the more common types of conflicts that inhibit an ejido from
entering PROCEDE include: conflicting ejido boundaries, internal
conflicts, pending litigation and determination of actual number of
Once the ejido has agreed to enter into PROCEDE, the government at no
expense to the ejido, will study the documents of the ejido and begin
the often time long procedure of surveying the entire ejido. The
surveying procedure often takes a long time due to the fact that each
individual lot, parcel and common use land needs to be surveyed. These
surveys are based on radiolocation points and GPS and the maps are
registered with the corresponding governmental agencies.
Once the entire ejido is measured, an ejido meeting or “Asamblea” is
called to assign each parcel and lot to the person the ejido recognizes
as the owner. If there are areas in the ejido in conflict or that have
not yet been assigned to a specific person, the ejido can agree to leave
such area to be assigned at a later date. Once the land of the ejido has
been assigned, the government will issue the certificates or titles that
correspond to the land in questions. Certificates and titles are not
synonyms and different rules apply to each one. One thing that must be
understood is the fact that in accordance with laws governing ejidos
there are three basic types of ejido land. These three types are land
are classified as follows:
1.- “Solores” or lots and which are converted to private property
through the PROCEDE procedure and do not require the “Dominio Pleno”
procedure to be converted into private property titles.
2.- “Parcelas” or parcels. Through PROCEDE parcels are given
“certificados parcelarios” or parcel certificates and which are governed
by agrarian or ejido law until converted to private property titles
through the “Dominio Pleno” procedure.
3.- “Uso Comun” or common use land. Common use land cannot be converted
directly into private property titles but can be converted into either
“Solares” or “Parcels”.
As soon as the government has issued the majority of the ejido titles or
certificates the second procedure which is called “Dominio Pleno” can
begin and by means of which each individual ejidatario can convert his
parcel certificate into a private property title.
B.- Domino Pleno.-
The Dominion Pleno procedure is much less involved than the PROCEDE
procedure. Once the ejido legally can enter into Dominio Pleno, an ejido
meeting has to be called and the members of the ejido have to agree that
each individual ejido member can, from the date of the agreement,
convert their parcel certificates into private property. This does not
mean that from this moment on all the land in the ejido is now private
property. The only thing that the approval of Dominio Pleno means is
that each individual ejido member, whenever he or she feels it is
convenient, can convert his or her parcel certificate into a private
Once the parcel certificate is converted to a private property title and
dully registered, the ejido member can sell to persons outside of the
ejido, including foreigners, observing certain third party legal rights.
Please understand, even though the Dominio Pleno procedure is much less
involved than the PROCEDE procedure, there are many formalities that
must be observed. If these formalities are not observed the transfer of
the corresponding property title could be declared null and void.
The fact that vast tracts of ejido land can now be converted into
private property, coupled with the fact that recent reforms in Mexican
legislation now allow foreigners to secure tile to land much easier add
up to huge investment possibilities for people looking for security
through real estate investment with the probability of large returns.
Please contact me if you have any questions regarding the above or are
interested in acquiring ejido property.
David Connell is a US citizen, licensed to practive law in Mexico.
Connell & Associates have offices in Mexico City, Puerto Vallarta and
Zihuatanejo with associate offices in various states. You can contact
Mr. Connell directly at firstname.lastname@example.org or vist the wep page at